Two Liberalisms: Locke vs Mill

The division in the Enlightenment between Rousseau and Hobbes is so famous it's practically a cliché at this point. Is human nature fundamentally good, or fundamentally bad? Is society a super-organism with a sovereign head, or a collection of self-interested agents, who need to be threatened to stay in line? Those debates will continue ad nauseam, I am sure. That's not what I mean by the title of this post. Rather, I want to explore the distinction between Locke and Mill.

The Declaration of Independence. Part 3: A Long Train Of Abuses

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, accordingly, all experience has shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But, when a long train of abuses and … Continue reading The Declaration of Independence. Part 3: A Long Train Of Abuses

The Declaration of Independence. Part 2: Self-Evident Truths

This is, of course, the passage that everyone is (more or less) familiar with -- at least the first sentence. In the United States, the first sentence has been crystalized into a kind of religious creed, similar in tone and meter to opening lines of the Apostle's Creed: "We believe in one God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth…", and so forth. But Jefferson had philosophical notions in mind when he wrote this, however pious he may (or may not) have been.

The Two Custodians – Thoughts On The Purpose Of The State

Traditionally, there are two great debates at the core of political philosophy. The first is what justifies political authority, and the second is what should be the form of the institution that assumes that authority. The first debate includes questions of fundamental justice. Issues like what the state owes to its subjects, and what the … Continue reading The Two Custodians – Thoughts On The Purpose Of The State

John Locke’s Property Rights

Does Locke offer a convincing account of an individual’s right to property? In his Second Treatise on Government, John Locke constructs a theory of property rights from two explicit arguments for the divine source of the moral claim of ownership, and one implicit argument for the divine source of value in labor. This essay will summarize each of these arguments, offer offer an assessment of the three arguments in combination, and conclude that Locke’s case is unconvincing in isolation. However, there are remedies which could make the case more convincing.